Agriculture in India is a critical sector of the country’s economy and plays a significant role in the livelihoods of millions of people.
Here is a short note on agriculture in India:
- Agrarian Economy: India is primarily an agrarian economy, with a substantial portion of its population dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Approximately 58% of the workforce is engaged in agriculture.
- Crop Diversity: India’s diverse climate and geography allow for the cultivation of a wide variety of crops, including rice, wheat, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, and oilseeds. This diversity ensures food security and income for many farmers.
- Challenges: Indian agriculture faces several challenges, including small and fragmented land holdings, inadequate irrigation facilities, reliance on monsoon rains, and the use of outdated farming techniques in some regions. These challenges can lead to yield fluctuations.
- Green Revolution: In the 1960s and 1970s, India experienced the Green Revolution, which significantly increased agricultural productivity through the introduction of high-yielding crop varieties, modern farming techniques, and improved irrigation.
- Genetically Modified Crops: India has been cautious in adopting genetically modified (GM) crops, with limited commercial cultivation of Bt cotton and Bt brinjal due to concerns about environmental and health impacts.
- Government Initiatives: The Indian government has launched various schemes and initiatives to support agriculture, such as the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) for direct income support to farmers and the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) for crop insurance.
- Export and Global Trade: India is a significant player in the global agricultural market, exporting various agricultural products such as rice, spices, and tea. It is also one of the largest milk producers in the world.
- Sustainable Agriculture: There is an increasing emphasis on sustainable and organic farming practices to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and ensure long-term food security.
- Challenges in Modernization: Modernizing Indian agriculture is essential to increase productivity and reduce the income disparities in rural areas. This includes investing in infrastructure, providing better access to credit, and promoting agricultural research and education.
- Rural-Urban Migration: The agriculture sector has been facing challenges due to rural-to-urban migration as young people seek non-farm employment opportunities, leading to concerns about the aging farming population.
In summary, agriculture in India is a vital sector that sustains a large portion of the population. It has made significant progress, but challenges persist, and continued efforts are required to ensure food security, improve rural livelihoods, and make the sector more sustainable.
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Important Agriculture MCQs
Q1. Genetic industry includes :
Q2. Which one among the following is not an objective of food management in India?
(a) Distribution of food grains
(b) Procurement of food grains
(c) Maintenance of food grains buffer stock
(d) Export of food grains
Q3. Suraj Dhara Yojana is :
(a) loan related
(b) exchange of seeds
(d) insurance related
Q4. Which of the following measures have been taken to make the agrarian structure conducive to agricultural growth?
(a) Abolition of Intermediaries
(b) Tenancy reforms
(c) Ceiling on land holdings
(d) All of the above
Q5. Which of the following is the effective reason of slow agricultural development in India?
(a) Rural Poverty
(b) Urban Poverty
(c) Skilled Labour
(d) Migration from cities to villages
Q6. Black soil of India is highly suited for the production of
(a) Cotton crop
(b) Paddy crop
(c) Sugarcane crop
(d) Wheat crop
Q7. The share of agriculture and allied sectors in the Gross Domestic Product of India is :
(a) 22 percent
(b) 80 percent
(c) 33 percent
(d) 18 percent
Q8. The contribution of agriculture in Indian Economy is :
(d) None of the above
Q9. Which one of the following States has largest area under Soyabean cultivation ?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Madhya Pradesh
Q10. The net crop sown area in India is about :
(a) 12 crore hectares
(b) 16 crore hectares
(c) 14 crore hectares
(d) 17 crore hectares
Q11. Under which Five Year Plan, did agriculture register a negative growth ?
Q12. Which of the following is the largest vegetable producing country in the world?
Q13. ‘Kashi Lalima’ is the variety of which of the following crops?
(b) Okra/Lady finger
Q14. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
(a) Rubber : Thailand
(b) Coffee : Mongolia
(c) Olive : Spain
(d) Sugarcane :Brazil
Q15. Which State ensures the maximum production of Coffee in India?
(c) Tamil Nadu
Q16. Which one of the following is the most valuable item in the agricultural export of India ?
(a) Oil cakes
(b) Raw cotton
Q17. The leading mulberry silk producing Indian State is :
(a) Andhra Pradesh
(b) Tamil Nadu
(d) West Bengal
Q18. The country, which is the largest silk producer in the world, is :
Q19. Agriculture income tax in India can be levied by :
(a) State Governments
(b) Central Government
(c) Local Governments
(d) Central and State Government
Q20. India’s main agricultural import item is:
(d) Edible oil
Q21. What approximate percentage of India’s labour force at present depends on agriculture for their livelihood?
Q22. Which of the followings is not a cash crop?
Q23. When was the National Horticulture Mission started?
(a) May, 2004
(b) May, 2006
(c) May, 2007
(d) May, 2005
Q24. hich one of the followings is not the objectives of ‘National Horticulture Mission’?
(a) Providing financial assistance
(b) Achieving higher growth in horticulture (c) Post-harvest management
(d) Human Resource Development
Q25. Which of the following countries is the largest producer of fish in the world?
Q26. The ‘blue revolution’ is related with :
(a) foodgrain production
(b) oilseed production
(c) milk production
(d) fish production
Q27. Operation Flood is related to which of the following
(a) Flood control
(b) Milk production
(c) Fish production
(d) Arrangement of drinking water
Q28. Which one of the following agriculture practices is eco-friendly?
(a) Cultivation of high yielding varieties
(b) Growing plants in glass houses (c) Shifting cultivation
(d) Organic farming
Q29. Crop Insurance Scheme in India was started in :
Q30. National Agricultural Insurance Scheme was launched in the year :
Q31. Weather Based Crop Insurance scheme was first implemented in :
(d) Tamil Nadu
Q32. Hariyali Yojana is related to :
(a) Crop Management
(b) Soil Management
(c) Water Management
(d) Forest Management
Q33. Handbook of Agriculture is published from :
Q34. Golden rice has been made richer in –
(a) Vitamin A
(b) Vitamin B
(c) Vitamin D
(d) Vitamin E
Q35. Demand of agricultural products is found to be :
(b) Zero elastic
(d) Infinite elastic
Q36. First Agricultural University in India was established at :
Q37. Indian Institute of Vegetable Research is located at –
Q38. Central Food Technological Research Institute is located at :
Q39. National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM) is located at :
(a) New Delhi
Q40. Which of the following makes recommendation regarding fixing of minimum support price for various crops?
(a) Indian Council of Agricultural Research
(c) Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices
(d) Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Q41. Which one among the following is not a cash crop ?
Q42. Which of the following is the main principle of agriculture finance?
(c) Productivity planning
(d) All of the above
Q43. Which is not a source of agricultural finance in India?
(a) Co-operative Societies
(b) Commercial Banks
(c) Regional Rural Banks
(d) None of these
Q44. Kisan Credit Card Scheme was announced in the year :
What is agriculture?
Agriculture is the practice of cultivating crops, raising livestock, and other activities involved in the production of food, fiber, and other products used to sustain human life.
Why is sustainable agriculture important?
Sustainable agriculture is vital because it ensures that agricultural practices do not deplete natural resources, harm the environment, or compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own food and resource needs. It promotes long-term food security and environmental health
How does climate change affect agriculture?
Climate change can impact agriculture by altering weather patterns, leading to more frequent and severe weather events like droughts and floods. Shifts in temperature and precipitation can affect crop yields and the availability of water for irrigation.
What are GMOs in agriculture, and are they safe to eat?
GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) are crops or animals whose genetic material has been altered through genetic engineering. The safety of GMOs for consumption remains a subject of debate. Many scientific studies suggest they are safe, but concerns about their long-term effects on health and the environment persist.
How does mechanization impact agriculture?
Mechanization in agriculture involves the use of machines and technology to streamline farming processes. It can increase efficiency, reduce labor requirements, and improve crop yields. However, it may also lead to job displacement in rural areas and raise concerns about its environmental impact.