Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF

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                               Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF

 History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir ,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

.

Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF 

                                                     History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

.

Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF 

                                                     History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

.

Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF 

                                                     History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

.

Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF 

                                                     History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

.

Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF 

                                                     History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

.

Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF 

                                                     History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

.

Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF 

                                                     History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

.

Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

Jammu and Kashmir History notes PDF 

                                                     History of Kashmir Origin of History

Kalhana 12th century poet-historian, who wrote the Rajatarangini (1148-1149AD) mentioned about eleven earlier chronicles, which he had consulted.Nilam Purana the earliest known text of Kashmir. It contains the sacred legends regarding the origin of the valley. The rites and worships prescribed by Nila-The Lord of Kashmir Nagas.

The Rajatarangini or the river of kings by Kalhana contains valuable political, social and other information pertaining to Kashmir and rest of India.Among the text dealing specially with the scared sities is the Harachartitachintamani of Jayadratha.During the muslim period,Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ,who attracted chronicles and poets to his court and showed keen interest in Sanskrit though Persian was the language of the court , had brought upto by two famous chronicles of his reign Jona Raja and Mulla Ahmed in Sanskrit and Persian respectively. The greater portion of Jona Raja’s chronicles , Rajavali deals with the reign of the later hindu rulers from Jayasimha to queen Didda.Mulla Ahmed’s translation of the Rajatarangini named Bahr-ul- Asman written in Persian and another work in Person by Haiderb Malik’s Tareekh-e-Kashmir(History of Kashmir).Abul Fazal’s Akbar Nama and Ani-e-Akbari gives information about history ,geography,administration , antiquities ,arts ,industries etc of Kashmir

Hiuen Tsang,who visited the valley in the year AD 631,records of the conversion of the people to Buddhism by Majjahantika.The Chinese pilgrim, Ou-Kong visited Kashmir in the middle of the AD8th century ,describing Kashmir as a Kingdom surrounded by mountains on all sides .Ou-kong gives the routes intersecting the mountains ,leading to Tibet in the East, Baltistan in the North and Gandhara in the West.

Alberuni’s Kitab -ul -Hind presents an accurate account of the valley. What he writes about the men and manners and arts and craft of Kashmir is are confirmed by Sanskrit sources of the period.Notable among these are European travellers are Father Jerome Xavier, who accompanied Emperor Akbar to Kashmir Francis Bernier who visited the Kashmir with Aurangzeb,Desideri,George Forester Vigne,Drew,Lawrence and Cunningham visited the Kashmir after the valley had come under Dogra rulers and under the suzerainty of the British India Government 

Burzahom-Neolithic Age 

*  Burzahom was the first neolithic site to be discovered in kashmir,located between the blanks of the Dal lake and the Zabarwan hills

* At Burzahom homes were pits dug below ground level using stone tools.

* People of Burzahom made simple gray or raddish -brown hand made pots in different shapes and sizes.

* Many burials of this phase were discovered ,red ochre was smeared on bodies before burial 

* Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat,barley,and lentils of different kinds at neolithic levels of burzahom

 Early History

Mahabharata period 

The rudiments of the earliest history of Kashmir could be traced during the epical Mahabharata period .According to Mahabharata evidences, the Kambojs had ruled over the region during the epical times and had a Republican system of Government Rajapura was their capital city, which has now been identified with modern Rajouri. Laterr, the Panchalas are believed to have established their sway. The name peer Panjal,which is simply a distorted from the sanskritic tribal term Panchala is a witness to this fact

In the Rajatarangini , Kalhan has started the history of Kashmir just before the great Mahabharata War, and and the first king mentioned by him is Gonanda I.He was killed in a battle along with his son and at the time of commencement of  Mahabharata War.Gonanda II was ruling Kashmir.After his death,the great historian informs that the records of 35 kings,who ruled the valley could not be traced by him, because of the destruction of the record

however,a modern scholar Peerzada Hassan has given brief record of these kings from a Persain work composed during the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin .The author of this work Mulla Ahmed had been able to obtain the names of these kings from an earlier Sanskrit work Ratnakar

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan rule established over the landscape of Jammu and Kashmir around 3rd century BC.The great Mauryan Emperor Ashoka is recorded to have ruled Kashmir and Kalhan rightly mentions that the King was a follower of Buddhism.Ashoka founded the old city of Srinagar called now as Pandrethan and also build many viharas and temples and repaired the old shrine.At Vijeshwari( modern Bijibehera),he built a Shiva temple ,thus winning the heart of the local population,who were mostly worshippers of lord Shiva.

It was Majjhantika , a celebrated Buddhist missionary, who was deputed to Kashmir and Urvasa to preach the faith of Buddha in those territories.Hiuen Tsang  mentions the arrival of 500 monks to Kashmir and Ashoka making a gift of the valley to Sangha.Many Buddhist scholars, missionaries and intellectuals permanently settled in the valley.Naturally, in course of time many people embraced Buddhism here.After the death of Ashoka his son Jaluka ascended the throne of Kashmir and the latter was succeeded by his son King Damodar II.Jaluka was a great king,who cleared the valley of oppressing Malechas 

Kushan Empire

After the Mauryas,Kashmir was occupied by the Kushans Kalhun’s account of Turushka king,indicates without any doubt the Kushanas occupation of the valley.T he three kings mentioned by him are Hushka,Jushhk and Kanishka,each of them is created with the foundation of a town christened after their respective names Hushkapura ,Jushapura and Kanishkapura.The kushan kings also built many temples and viharas.

According to many scholars,Kanishka held the fourth great Buddhist council at Kundalvan where historical division of Buddhsim into sects,namely Hinayana and Mahayana took place.Hiuien Tsang has given the proceedings of this council.Nearly 500 Buddhist and Hindu scholars attended this conference and a learned Kashmir Brahmin Vasumitra presided over its session.Some of the great Buddhist scholars, who took active part in the council were Ashvagosh ,Nagarjuna,Vasubandhu,Sungamitra and Jinamitra

Karkota Dynasty

Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabavardhana(AD625-661)as borne out by his coins.During the reign of Durlabhavardhana,the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and entered the valley via Baramulla,where he found a huge stone gate.The entry of all outsiders, except the Hindus, was banned in the state then.Hiuen Tsang was given a right royal reception by the people including the king. He stayed in Kashmir for nearly two years, studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures at the feet of learned men here

It is the Karkota dynasty that has give Kashmir the greatest ruler Laliaditya Muktapid . He is undoubtedly the Samudra Gupta of Kashmir.He was filled with an unquenchable thirst of world conquest.He invaded and conquered many countries in Asia and India

The Panjab,Kannauj,Tibet,Ladakh,Badakshan,Iran,Bihar,Gauda,Kalinga,South India,Gujarat,Malwa,Mawar and sindh were all conquered by him,It was he,who finally broke the power of Arabs in Sindh.All these unbroken victories created a feeling of pride among the people here and his victories came to be celebrated in a big way.Kalhan who wrote his famous chronicle Rajatarangini,nearly four hundred years after the death of Lalitaditya,records that even in his time the victories of the great victor were being celebrated through out the valley

Alberuni,who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his Indian campaigns,specifically mentions in his book Tarikh-e-Hind that Kashmiris observed second of Chaitra as the day of victory.Lalitaditya was equally a great builder and he built his capital near the sacred shrine of Kheer Bhawani and gave it the name of Parilhaspur 

Throughout the valley,he built very fine and massive temples out of which the world famous Sun temple built on Mattan Karewa, reminds us about the grandeur and splendour of the times, when their builder ruled the state.The extensive ruins of his capital city Parihaspur,speaks of his activities in the field of art and architecture.After his death it is mostly the week rulers,except his grandson Jayatida,who ruled the valley

Both Lalitadity and Jayatida were great patrons of learning and extended their patronage to Bhavavhuti, Vak Patrija,Udhata Bhata,Damodhar Gupta,Manoratha ,Sankhdanta and Samadhi Mat etc.The history of Karkota dynasty after Jayatida is a sad story of decline. All the conquered territories regained their independence and the sovereignty of the ruler of Kashmir came to be confined to the Vitasta basin.

Mediaeval Period    

Utpala Dynasty

It was about in AD 855-856 that Kartota rule ended and a new Utpala dynasty assumed power in Kashmir.The most important ruler of this dynasty was Maharaja Avantivarman.It was he,who recovered Kashmir from uttar political and economic disorder.His reign witnessed a period of peace and consolidation and prosperity.

The most important foundation of the King was his capital city Avantipur,which he embellished with two temples ,one dedicated to Shiva and other to Vishnu.Both of them are in ruins now, but even then, they stand as the most imposing monuments of ancient Kashmir.Avantivarman died in a temple on Dal Lake, when a fatal disease caught him.

Avantivarman was succeeded by his son Shankarvarman,but then the decline of Utpala dynasty set in. In the time of King Yasakara (AD939-948),a Math(hospice) was built for the student pf India, who came to Kashmir for study and meditation.It clearly reveals intimate cultural contact between the valley and plains of India in the 10th century in AD 950,Khemgupta ascended the throne of Kashmir,a man of mediocre ability,who married princess Didda, daughter of the ruler of Lohara (poonch) and granddaughter of the Shahi King of Kabul.

Queen Didda was the defacto ruler of the state,as she was very dominating and exercised immense influence over her husband.She built many temples and monasteries and Lata .

In 980 AD,Didda ascended the throne after the death of her husband.Before her two queens had ruled the Kashmir namely Yashovati and Sugandha. Didda was very unscrupulous and willful lady and led a very immoral life.But inspite of these drawbacks,she was an able ruler,who firmly ruled the valley.She died in 1003 AD and left the throne of Kashmir to her family in undisputed succession.As her children had died young,she transmitted the crown to sangram raj ,son of her brother Udariraj, the ruler of Lohara

It was during her time,the Mahmud of Ghazni twice tried to capture the valley but the fort of Lohara, remarkable for its height and strength proved impregnable. The Sultan was obliged to abandon the conquest

Lohara Dynasty

Lohara dynasty ,centred at Lohran,was founded by Sangramraj after the death of Queen Didda and ruled the Kashmir for more than a century,after the eclipse of Utpala dynasty,till the end of the Hindu rule in Kashmir 1399 AD.From AD 1089 to 1101,King Harsha ruled Kashmir.Harsha with his son Bhoja were murdered and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively.Both the prince met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his Rajatarangini in 1149-1150 AD King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of Hindu time, was ruling the state.

Jaisimha   

(1128-55AD) early days were critical,because of the preceding civil wars and political unrest,Still the new ruler was able to maintain his firm rule for twenty-seven years in a comparative safety.The King repaired and restored main temples shrines,and numerous other pious.The people after a long time heaved a sign of relief.The last ruler of Lohara dynasty was Vanitadeva,who died in 1171AD.

Deva Dynasty

Deva dynasty ruled the Kashmir from 1171 to1371 AD.Sangramdev and Sahdev were notable Kings.During the reign of Sahdev,Kashmir was invaded by a Tratar chief,Dulucha,from central Asia

 Muslim Rule

Shah Mir Dynasty

After the death of Queen Kota,Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shams-ud-din.The Shah Miri dynasty has given us only two rulers,who are worthy of mention.One is Sultan Shihab-ud-din and the second is great Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin.The former ascended the throne in 1354 ADand continued to rule till 1373 AD.He was full of energy and vigour and he was able to establish his sway over the neighbouring countries.His army mainly consisted of Damras,Lavans and the hill tribes of poonch,Rajouri and Kishtiwar.

His two important Hindu minsters were Kota Bhat and Udyashri.At the beginning of his reign,he led an army to Sindh and defeated its rulers.While returning,he defeated Afghans near peshawar and then he conquered Kabul ,Ghazni,Kandahar,Pakhali,Swat and Multan.He invaded Badakhshan and then marched towards Dardistan and Gilgit,which he easily conquered.Then he marched towards Balochistan and Ladakh.

Shah-ud-din

The ruler of Kashgar(central Asia) came with a huge army and Shah-ud-din,who;e army was numerically inferior,inflicted a crushing defeat and the Kashgar army was almost wiped out.This led to the annexation of Ladakh and Balistan,which were claimed by the Kashgar ruler.It is also said that the ruler of Kashmir marched towards Delhi and on the way conquered Kangra and then the army of Feroz Shah Tughlaq opposed him on the blanks of sutlej.Since the battle between the rulers of Delhi and Kashmir was indecisive,peace was concluded and it was agreed that all the territory from Sirhind to Kashmir was belong to the Kashmir ruler.Shah-ud-din was not only a great conqueror but also an able administrator and he governed his Kingdom with firmness and justice.The King founded a new town,which he called Shihab-ud-din-pura,known as Shadipur.He is also said to have erected many mosques and monasteries.Shihab-ud-din can rightly be called the Lalitaditya of medieval Kashmir

Qutb-ud-din

The next ruler was Sultan Qutb-ud-din and in whose time the only important event worth mentioning is the arrival of Syed Ali Hamdani,who was the most remarkable personality of then Muslim world.At the time of his 3rd visit,he got 700 syeds from Hamdan,who were being out to torture by Timur,ruler of Persia.These Syeds established their centres of missionaryt activities in different parts of the valley.In 1389,Qutb-ud-din died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Sultan Skindar.It was in the time of this Sultan that the political atmosphere of the state was vitiat

Zain-ul-Abidin

Shahi-khan or Sultan Zain-ul Abidin ascended the throne in 1420 AD and ruled upto 1470 AD .nearly for half a century.His accession to the throne proved to be the return of a bright and warm day after a cold and a chilly night.Zain-ul-Abidin organised a huge army and with its help he reconquered the Punjab,western Tibet,Ladakh and friendly relations with the rulers of other countrie.The sheriff of macca and the Kings of Jilan and Egypt sent him presents

The maharaja of Gwalior,hearing that the Sultan was interested in music,sent his valuable works on Indian music.There was also an exchange of embassies and gifts between the great Sultan and the ruler Sindh,Bengal,Tibet,Gujarat,Malwa and Delhi. The Sultan improved the tone of adminstration,which had  rudely been shaken.He appointed talented persons in high adminstrative posts irrespective of caste or creed.

Social works of Sultan: Zain-ul-Abidin

The Sultan had a high sense of justice and no one who committed a crime was spared,however close he was to throne.Many grandees,who were favourites of the King were severely punished when found guilty.The King took keen interest in agriculture and like Lalitaditya and Avantivarman,many canals were dugout in all parts of the Kingdom.Jonraja and Shriva have given details of these canals in their valuable books.Owing to these irrigation works,the draining of marshes and reclamation of large areas for cultivation.Kashmir became self-sufficient in food and rice was cheap.

One of the most outstanding features of his administration was the just and liberal treatment for the Hindus,who were not only allowed complete freedom of worship,but the Sultan recalled all those,who had fled to India in the time of his father.He allowed those Hindus,who had forcibly been converted,to return to their former religion.

The Sultan banned cow slaughter and permitted the repair and rebuilding of the temples at government expenses.He granted lands to learned Brahmins endowed temples and for Hindus pilgrims visiting holy places in the valley,he opened a royal kitchen at Rainawari known even now as Jogi Lanker,Jaziya was almost abolished and the Sultan participated in Hindu festivals and entertained Brahmins and Sadhus on auspicious days .Some of his important Hindu minsters were the famous physician.At the same time Sultan was a great patron of men of letters,such as Syed Mohammad Rumi,Syed Ahmed Rumi,Qazi Syed Shirazi,Qazi Jamal and Maulana Kabir to mention only a few.The Sultan had also established a translation department,where important works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian and Arabic.The Sultan opened schools and hostels for the students 

The Sultan was a great builder. He founded new city called Nowshader.besides Nowshader,the Sultan founded the town of Zainpur,Zainakut and Zainagir.Similarly,he built the first wooden bridge at Srinagar known even now as Zainakadal .In 1470 AD, the Sultan died and for a long time his death was mourned by the people.Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin’s death sounded the death knell of Shah Miri dynasty.

Chak Dynasty

The last shah miri ruler,Sultan Habib Shah, a weakling was deposed by his commander and nobles raised on throne Ghazi Chak,a prominent Military General of the time.He was the direct descendant of Lanker Chak,who had come to Kashmir towards the close of Hindu rule.The Chak rule began in Kashmir in 1561 AD and lasted till 1587 AD,when Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor,conquered Kashmir.Checks were originally Cards residents od Gilgit Huza area.They thwarted successfully the attempts of Mughal Emperors Babur and Humayun to annex Kashmir.Yusuf shah Chak married to Habba Khatun,a beautiful and charming poetess and made Gulmarg and Sonamarg the holiday resorts.He tried his best to ward off the succumbed to the forces of Akbar and died in prison in Bihar.Mughal Army under Qasim,defeated Shah’s Army at Haripura and this paved the way of Mughal rule in Kashmir in 1587 AD

Mughal Dynasty

The Mughals remained in power here,from 1587 to 1752 AD and in this period undoubtedly,the people enjoyed   peace and orderly government.There were some rapacious officers,but on the complaint of the people,the Mughal rulers immediately removed them.It was 1579 AD,that illuminated Mughal Emperor Akbar visited Kashmir

About eighty thousand Kashmiris were entertained by Akbar at Idgah.During his reign,Raja Todar Mal the great finance and Revenue Minster,made revenue settlement of the valley,which in its broad features forms the basis of the present revenue settlement in the valley.Akbar built a new town near Hariparbat and called it Nagar-Magar and built the massive wall around the hill.The great king Akbar visited the valley three times and with him,came a large number of Mughal grandees,noblemen and army generals.But actually,it was in the time of Jahangir that the beauty of the state attracted thousands of visitors to the happy valley. Shalimar and Nishat gardens on the banks of Dal lake,would keep Jahangir’s love for natural beauty ever fresh in our memory.He laid gardens at Achable and Veering.Perhaps no other ruler has ever paid so much tribute to the beauty of Kashmir as Jahangir did

Shah Jahan laid the garden of Chashmashahi and also built a portion of Shalimar.The Mughal Governor Ali Marden Khan also laid out a number of gardens.Aurangzeb visited Kashmir only once in 1665 AD

Afghan Rule

The Afghan rule in Kashmir lasted for 1762 to 1819 AD.They ruled through their Governors,who in turn engaged their deputies to rule in the valley.They were despotic and tyrannised the people.Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai,Buland Khan,Khurana Khan ,Timur,Zaman shah,Shah Mohammad and shah Shuja were the chief Governors.

Ahmed Shah,a free hooter of Nadir Shah,gladly accepted this offer and immediately despatched a strong and a powerful Afghan Army under the command of Abdullah Khan Ishik to occupy the valley.The Mughal satrap offered a strong resistance,but was defeated and the Afghan Governor planted the Afghan flag on the ramparts of Akbar’s town at Nogar.

The rule of Mughals in Kashmir came ta an end,although it continued to exit in northern India,nominally upto 1857 AD.Kashmir remained a dependency of Kabul rulers till 1819 AD,roughly a period of sixty-seven years

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Sikh Rule

A deputation of Kashmiris led by Pandit Birbal Dhar and his son Pandit Rajakak Dhar,left fo lahore and fervently requested Maharaja Ranjit Singh to conquer Kashmir.Three prominent Muslims helped Pandit Birbal Dhar to escape from the valley.They were Abdul Qadoos Gojwari,Malik Zulfiqar and Malik Kamgar.In 1819 thirty thousand soldiers of Maharaja Ranjit Singh attacked Kashmir,defeated the Pathans and the state became a part of Ranjit Singh’s empire.Sikh rule lasted for only twenty-seven years from 1819 to 1846 AD.

Dogra Rule

In 1846,when the British defeated the Sikhs and annexed the Panjab,they sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu for RS 75 thousands,under the treaty of Amiritsar.Maharaja Gulab Singh entered Srinagar on 9th November,1848 at 8.am in the morning ,The Dogra royal line traces its descent from the ancient kshatriyas mentioned frequently in Mahabharata

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.v

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.

The Dogra ruler claimed that they belong to the surya Vanshi race.Maharaja Gulab died in 1857 AD.He was succeeded by Maharaja Ranbir Singh who ruled from 1857 to 1885 AD.He was succeeded by Pratap Singh.After the death of Pratap Singh his nephew Maharaja Hari Singh ascended the throne in 1925 AD,he continued to govern the state till 1950 AD.

Mcqs on Ancient history of Jammu and Kashmir

Mcqs on Medieval history of jammu and kashmir

Mcqs on Modern history of Jammu and Kashmir

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