The Indian National Movement from 1919 to 1929 was a crucial period in India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule. Here is an overview of the major events and developments during this period:join Telegram channel
- The Rowlatt Act (1919): The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British government in India, granting extensive powers to the colonial authorities to arrest and detain individuals without trial. This led to widespread protests and discontent among the Indian population.
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919): On April 13, 1919, a peaceful gathering took place at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab, to protest against the Rowlatt Act. British troops under the command of General Reginald Dyer opened fire on the crowd, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of people and injuring thousands. This brutal incident intensified the nationalist movement and fueled anger against British rule.
- Non-cooperation Movement (1920-1922): Led by Mahatma Gandhi, the Non-cooperation Movement aimed to resist British rule through nonviolent means. It involved boycotts of British goods, institutions, and law courts, as well as mass protests, strikes, and civil disobedience. Although the movement was eventually called off due to incidents of violence, it marked a significant shift in the Indian nationalist struggle.
- Khilafat Movement (1919-1924): The Khilafat Movement emerged as a result of Indian Muslims’ concerns over the dismantling of the Ottoman Caliphate by the victorious Allied powers after World War I. Indian nationalists, led by Gandhi and the Ali brothers (Maulana Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali), joined forces with the Muslims to demand the restoration of the Caliphate. The movement mobilized large sections of the population and strengthened Hindu-Muslim unity in the struggle against British rule.
- Swaraj Party (1923): After the suspension of the Non-cooperation Movement, a group of leaders within the Indian National Congress, including Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das, formed the Swaraj Party. The party aimed to contest elections within the existing colonial framework and work towards achieving self-government. It advocated for boycotts of British goods, nonpayment of taxes, and legislative pressure to press for reforms.
- Simon Commission (1927): The Simon Commission, led by Sir John Simon, was appointed by the British government to review India’s constitutional situation. However, it did not include any Indian members, leading to widespread protests and boycotts. The Indian National Congress and other nationalist groups rejected the Commission, demanding full Indian representation.
- Nehru Report (1928): The Nehru Report, authored by Motilal Nehru and adopted by the All Parties Conference, proposed a draft constitution for India. It called for dominion status, fundamental rights, and safeguards for minorities. However, the report was not accepted by the British government, leading to further disillusionment and demands for greater autonomy.
- Bardoli Satyagraha (1928): The Bardoli Satyagraha was a successful nonviolent campaign led by Vallabhbhai Patel in the Bardoli region of Gujarat against the oppressive land revenue policies of the British government. The movement garnered significant public support and resulted in the restoration of confiscated lands to farmers.
These events and movements played a crucial role in shaping the Indian National Movement and strengthening the resolve of Indians to fight for independence from British rule. The period from 1919 to 1929 laid the foundation for subsequent phases of the struggle, leading to India’s eventual independence in 1947.
MCQs on Indian National movement 1919 to 1929
Q1. When was the Rowlatt Act passed?
Q2. The Rowlatt Act aimed at :
(a) Compulsory economic support to war efforts (b) Imprisonment without trial and summary procedures for trial
(c) Suppression of the Khilafat Movement
(d) Imposition of restrictions on freedom of the press
Q3. Who was the Viceroy of India when the Rowlatt Act was passed?
(a) Lord Irwin
(b) Lord Reading
(c) Lord Chelmsford
(d) Lord Wavell
Q4. The first venture of Gandhi in all-India politics was the:
(a) Non-Cooperation Movement
(b) Rowlatt Satyagraha
(c) Champaran Movement
(d) Dandi March
Q5. The massacre of the crowd at Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar took place on :
(a) May 5, 1918
(b) April 1, 1919
(c) April 13, 1919
(d) July 29, 1919
Q6. Why did people gather to demonstrate at Jallianwala Bagh?
(a) To protest against the arrest of Gandhi and Lajpat Rai
(b) To protest against the arrest of Kitchlu and Satyapal
(c) To offer prayers on the Baisakhi Day
(d) To protest against the arbitrarily of inhuman acts of the Punjab Government
Q7. The person who returned his honour to the Indian Government on May 30, 1919 was
(a) Jamnalal Bajaj
(b) Tej Bahadur Sapru
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Rabindranath Tagore
Q8. The Hunter Committee was appointed after the:
(a) Black Hole incident
(b) Jalianwalla Bagh massacre
(c) Uprising of 1857
(d) Partition of Bengal
Q9. Who among the following, were prominent leaders of the ‘Khilafat Movement’?
(a) Maulana Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali (b) Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Shaukat Ali
(c) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Rafi Ahmed Kidwai
(d) Rafi Ahmed Kidwai and Shaukat Ali
Q10. Who was elected as President of the All India Khilafat Conference in 1919?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(c) Maulana Shaukat Ali
(d) Motilal Nehru
Q11. The first Mass Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi
(a) Non-Cooperation Movement
(b) Salt Movement
(c) Quit India Movement
(d) Neel Movement
Q12. Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in
Q13. ‘To attain Swaraj in a year’ was the aim of
(a) Civil Disobedience Movement
(b) Home Rule Movement
(c) Khilafat Movement
(d) Non-Cooperation Movement
Q14. The Chauri-Chaura episode took place on:
(a) 5th February, 1922
(b) 4th February, 1922
(c) 2nd February, 1922
(d) 6th February, 1922
Q15. Mahatma Gandhi suspended the Non-Cooperation Movement because :
(a) The support of the public was not satisfactory.
(b) Muslims set himself apart from the movement
(c) Repressive measures adopted by the British Government
(d) The violent incident at Chauri- Chaura
Q16. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
(a) 1885- Foundation of Indian National Congress
(b) 1905- The Partition of Bengal
(c) 1909- Morley-Minto Reforms
(d) 1930- Non-Cooperation Movement
Q17. Swaraj Party was formed by:
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi (b) Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) C.R.Das and Moti Lal Nehru
(d) Sardar Patel and Rajendra Prasad
Q18. Who of the following is known as ‘Deshbandhu’?
(a) Chandra Shekhar
(b) Chitranjan Das
(c) A.O. Hume
(d) Annie Besant
Q19. Mahatma Gandhi presided over which Session of the Indian National Congress?
Q20. When did the Simon Commission visit India?
Q21. Simon Commission was appointed in:
Q22. Simon Commission in 1928 came to India with the purpose
(a) To consider Administrative reform
(b) To improve Education
(c) To improve Agricultural sector
(d) To evaluate Military capacity
Q23. Simon Commission of 1927 was boycotted because:
(a) Congress felt that the people of India are entitled to Swaraj
(b) There was no Indian member in the Commission
(c) It supported the Muslim League
(d) There were differences among the members
Q24. To whom was the title of “Punjab Kesari” conferred?
(a) Bhagat Singh
(b) Ranjeet Singh
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai
(d) Lala Hardayal
Q25. ‘Nehru Report’ was prepared by
(a) M.L. Nehru
(b) J. L. Nehru
(c) R.K. Nehru
(d) B. L. Nehru
Q26. In which of the following sessions of Muslim League, M.A. Jinnah put forth his 14 point proposal?
Q27. When did the Congress pass the proposal of independence of India for the first time?
Q28. Who declared the aim of Congress as ‘Purna Swarajya’ in the Lahore Session of Congress 1929?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Motilal Nehru
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Subhash Chandra Bose
Q29. The President of Lahore Session of Indian National Congress (1929) was:
(a) Abul Kalam Azad
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Rajendra Prasad
(d) Subhash Chandra Bose
Q30. When was the newly adopted tri-colour fl ag of freedom first hoisted?
(a) 31st December, 1928
(b) 31st December, 1929
(c) 31st December, 1930
(d) 31st December, 1931
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What was the significance of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in the Indian National Movement?
The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was a turning point in the Indian National Movement. The brutal attack by British troops on peaceful protesters in Amritsar on April 13, 1919, led to widespread outrage and intensified the nationalist movement. It highlighted the oppressive nature of British rule and fueled a sense of unity and determination among Indians to fight for independence.
How did the Non-cooperation Movement impact the Indian National Movement?
The Non-cooperation Movement, led by Mahatma Gandhi from 1920 to 1922, marked a significant shift in the Indian National Movement. It advocated nonviolent resistance, boycotts of British institutions and goods, and civil disobedience. Although the movement was eventually called off due to incidents of violence, it mobilized millions of Indians and instilled a sense of self-reliance, discipline, and nonviolent resistance as powerful tools in the fight against British rule.
What was the Khilafat Movement, and how did it contribute to the Indian National Movement?
The Khilafat Movement emerged as a result of Indian Muslims’ concerns over the dismantling of the Ottoman Caliphate by the Allied powers after World War I. It united Muslims and Hindus under a common cause and strengthened Hindu-Muslim unity in the fight against British rule. The movement, led by Gandhi and the Ali brothers, mobilized large sections of the population and showcased the collective strength and unity of the Indian nationalist movement.
What were the main demands put forth in the Nehru Report of 1928?
The Nehru Report, authored by Motilal Nehru and adopted by the All Parties Conference in 1928, proposed a draft constitution for India. It demanded dominion status for India within the British Empire, fundamental rights for citizens, separation of powers, adult suffrage, and safeguards for minorities. The report aimed to assert Indian aspirations for self-governance and became an important document in the constitutional discussions of the time.
How did the Simon Commission impact the Indian National Movement?
The Simon Commission, appointed by the British government in 1927 to review India’s constitutional situation, had no Indian members. This exclusion outraged Indians and led to widespread protests and boycotts. The Indian National Congress and other nationalist groups rejected the Commission’s legitimacy and demanded full Indian representation. The Simon Commission further fueled nationalist sentiments and highlighted the growing demand for Indian participation in decision-making processes concerning India’s future.