Most 70 important MCQs on Ecology

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Ecology is the scientific study of the relationships between organisms and their environments. It seeks to understand how living organisms interact with each other and with their physical surroundings, including the abiotic (non-living) factors like climate, soil, and water.

Most 70 important MCQs on Ecology practice now

Here are some key points about ecology:

  1. Interconnectedness: Ecology emphasizes the interconnectedness of all living things within ecosystems. It recognizes that every organism, from the smallest microbe to the largest predator, plays a role in the balance and functioning of its ecosystem.
  2. Levels of organization: Ecology studies various levels of biological organization, from individuals to populations, communities, ecosystems, and even the entire biosphere. Each level provides unique insights into how organisms interact with their surroundings.
  3. Biotic and abiotic factors: Ecology considers both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factors that influence the distribution and abundance of species. Biotic factors include predation, competition, and mutualism, while abiotic factors encompass temperature, rainfall, and nutrient availability.
  4. Conservation and sustainability: Ecology plays a crucial role in addressing environmental challenges, including biodiversity loss, habitat destruction, and climate change. It provides the knowledge needed to develop strategies for conservation and sustainable resource management.
  5. Applied ecology: Ecological principles are applied in various fields, such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, and environmental science, to address real-world problems and find solutions for a more harmonious coexistence between humans and the environment.
  6. Evolutionary perspective: Ecology is closely linked to evolution, as the interactions between organisms and their environments can lead to the adaptation and evolution of species over time. This perspective helps explain the diversity of life on Earth.
  7. Holistic approach: Ecologists often take a holistic approach, considering the complex web of interactions within ecosystems. They use tools like food webs, energy flow diagrams, and ecological models to understand these intricate relationships.

In summary, ecology is a multidisciplinary field that examines the relationships between organisms and their environments, providing valuable insights into the functioning of ecosystems and the conservation of our planet’s biodiversity. It is essential for addressing environmental challenges and promoting sustainable practices in the face of growing environmental concerns.

Most 70 important MCQs on Ecology

Q1. What is the primary source of energy in most ecosystems?

a) Wind

b) Sunlight

c) Geothermal heat

d) Fossil fuels

b) Sunlight

Q2. Which term refers to the variety of species in a particular ecosystem?

a) Abundance

b) Diversity

c) Population

d) Habitat

b) Diversity

Q3. In which ecosystem would you find mostly coniferous trees, such as pine and spruce?

a) Desert

b) Rainforest

c) Tundra

d) Taiga

d) Taiga

Q4. What is the process by which green plants convert sunlight into chemical energy?

a) Photosynthesis

b) Respiration

c) Decomposition

d) Fermentation

a) Photosynthesis

Q5. Which of the following is an example of a decomposer organism?

a) Hawk

b) Earthworm

c) Deer

d) Oak tree

b) Earthworm

Q6. What is the term for the relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed?

a) Parasitism

b) Commensalism

c) Mutualism

d) Predation

b) Commensalism

Q7. Which of the following is a biotic factor in an ecosystem?

a) Temperature

b) Water

c) Soil

d) Grass

d) Grass

Q8. What is the process by which a population becomes better suited to its environment over many generations?

a) Evolution

b) Migration

c) Extinction

d) Succession

a) Evolution

Q9. Which biome is characterized by low precipitation, high temperatures, and cacti as dominant vegetation?

a) Tundra

b) Desert

c) Grassland

d) Rainforest

b) Desert

Q10. What term describes the maximum number of individuals an ecosystem can support without degrading the environment?

a) Carrying capacity

b) Population density

c) Birth rate

d) Habitat capacity

a) Carrying capacity

Q11. Which gas is primarily responsible for the greenhouse effect?

a) Oxygen (O2)

b) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

c) Nitrogen (N2)

d) Methane (CH4)

b) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Q12. What is the term for the gradual process of one ecological community replacing another in an area?

a) Climax community

b) Ecological succession

c) Biogeochemical cycle

d) Keystone species

b) Ecological succession

Q13. Which of the following is an example of a keystone species?

a) Squirrel

b) Oak tree

c) Beaver

d) Sea otter

d) Sea otter

Q14. Which level of ecological organization encompasses all the others?

a) Ecosystem

b) Community

c) Population

d) Biosphere

d) Biosphere

Q15. What is the term for the variety of different ecosystems within a larger region?

a) Biome

b) Biodiversity hotspot

c) Landscape ecology

d) Habitat

c) Landscape ecology

Q16. In a food chain, which organisms are at the highest trophic level?

a) Producers

b) Primary consumers

c) Secondary consumers

d) Decomposers

c) Secondary consumers

Q17. What is the term for the process by which water is released from plants into the atmosphere?

a) Transpiration

b) Precipitation

c) Condensation

d) Evaporation

a) Transpiration

Q18. Which of the following is an example of a density-independent factor affecting population size?

a) Disease

b) Predation

c) Competition

d) Natural disasters

d) Natural disasters

Q19. What is the primary source of energy for deep-sea ecosystems near hydrothermal vents?

a) Sunlight

b) Geothermal heat

c) Moonlight

d) Chemical compounds

b) Geothermal heat

Q20. What is the term for the movement of individuals into a population?

a) Emigration

b) Birth rate

c) Immigration

d) Death rate

c) Immigration

Q21. Which biome is characterized by low temperatures, permafrost, and very short growing seasons?

a) Tundra

b) Desert

c) Grassland

d) Rainforest

a) Tundra

Q22. What is the term for the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level?

a) Biomass

b) Biodiversity

c) Productivity

d) Carrying capacity

a) Biomass

Q23. Which of the following is an example of a pioneer species in primary succession?

a) Grasses

b) Oak trees

c) Wolves

d) Rabbits

a) Grasses

Q24. What is the term for the process of breaking down organic matter into simpler substances by decomposers?

a) Photosynthesis

b) Respiration

c) Decomposition

d) Fermentation

c) Decomposition

Q25. Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

a) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

b) Nitrous oxide (N2O)

c) Oxygen (O2)

d) Methane (CH4)

c) Oxygen (O2)

Q26. What is the term for the process by which nitrogen is converted into forms that plants can absorb?

a) Nitrification

b) Denitrification

c) Nitrogen fixation

d) Ammonification

c) Nitrogen fixation

Q27. Which type of ecological pyramid represents the energy transfer between trophic levels?

a) Pyramid of numbers

b) Pyramid of biomass

c) Pyramid of energy

d) Pyramid of succession

a) Pyramid of numbers

Q28. What is the term for the process by which an organism moves from one habitat to another during different seasons?

a) Migration

b) Hibernation

c) Adaptation

d) Predation

a) Migration

Q29. Which of the following is an example of a freshwater biome?

a) Coral reef

b) Estuary

c) Kelp forest

d) Mangrove swamp

b) Estuary

Q30. What term describes a relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another organism?

a) Mutualism

b) Parasitism

c) Commensalism

d) Symbiosis

b) Parasitism

Q31. Which of the following is a nonrenewable resource often associated with environmental concerns?

a) Wind energy

b) Solar energy

c) Fossil fuels

d) Hydroelectric power

c) Fossil fuels

Q32. What term describes the process by which carbon is returned to the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels?

a) Photosynthesis

b) Decomposition

c) Combustion

d) Erosion

a) Photosynthesis

Q33. Which type of pollution results from excess nutrients in water, leading to overgrowth of algae?

a) Air pollution

b) Thermal pollution

c) Eutrophication

d) Radioactive pollution

c) Eutrophication

Q34. In a terrestrial food web, what are the primary producers?

a) Herbivores

b) Carnivores

c) Omnivores

d) Autotrophs

d) Autotrophs

Q35. Which biome is characterized by tall grasses, few trees, and a high fire frequency?

a) Desert

b) Tundra

c) Grassland

d) Rainforest

c) Grassland

Q36. What is the term for the gradual, long-term change in the Earth’s climate?

a) Global warming

b) Greenhouse effect

c) Climate change

d) Ozone depletion

c) Climate change

Q37. Which of the following is an example of a secondary consumer in a marine food web?

a) Phytoplankton

b) Zooplankton

c) Jellyfish

d) Seagull

d) Seagull

Q38. What term describes the role a species plays in its ecosystem, including its interactions with other organisms?

a) Niche

b) Habitat

c) Ecosystem

d) Biosphere

a) Niche

Q39. Which of the following gases is a major component of Earth’s atmosphere?

a) Oxygen (O2)

b) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

c) Hydrogen (H2)

d) Nitrogen (N2)

d) Nitrogen (N2)

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Ecology multiple choice questions

Q1. ‘Ecology’ is the study of the relationship between  

(a) Organism and environment

(b) Man and forest   

(c) Soil and water  

(d) plants and animals

(a) Organism and environment

Q2. The term Ecosystem was proposed by –  (a) G. Tailor  

(b) E. Hartigan  

(c) D.R. Stoddart 

(d) Tansley

(d) Tansley

Q3. Which of the following is not correct about the  ecosystem?

 (a) It comprises both, abiotic and biotic components  

 (b) It has its productivity

 (c) It is a closed system

 (d) It is a natural resource system

(c) It is a closed system

Q4. Which four components constitute an ecosystem?

(a) Water, Carbon, Oxygen, Sulphur  

(b) Soil, Temperature, Humidity, Rainfall  

(c) Abiotic materials, Producers, Consumers, Decomposers

(d) Herbivores, Carnivores, Bacteria, Parasites

(c) Abiotic materials, Producers, Consumers, Decomposers

Q5. Which of the following is an artificial ecosystem?

(a) Rice field

(b) Forest  

(c) Grassland 

(d) Lake

(a) Rice field

Q6. The number of organisms that can be supported by the  environment in a given area is known as:

(a) Population  

(b) Carrying Capacity

(c) Pyramid of number or biomass  

(d) None of the above

(b) Carrying Capacity

Q7. The actual location or place where an organism lives  is called:   

(a) Habitat

(b) Ecosystem 

(c) Niche 

(d) Biome

(a) Habitat

Q8. Which one of the following ecosystems covers the  largest area of the earth’s surface:

(a) Desert Ecosystem 

(b) Grassland Ecosystem  

(c) Mountain Ecosystem 

(d) Marine Ecosystem

(d) Marine Ecosystem

Q9. Which of the following does not help to maintain  ecological balance?

(a) Cutting forest

(b) Afforestation  

(c) Rainwater Management 

(d) Biosphere Reserves

(a) Cutting forest

Q10. Which of the following is an act that disturbs the  ecological balance? 

(a) Lumbering

(b) Social forestry  

(c) Van Mahotsav  

(d) Aff orestation

(a) Lumbering

Q11. The highest trophic level in an ecosystem is obtained  by:

(a) Herbivores 

(b) Carnivores  

(c) Omnivores

(d) Decomposers

(c) Omnivores

Q12. Which of the following is not a biotic component of  an ecosystem?

(a) Air

(b) Plant  

(c) Bacteria 

(d) Animals

(a) Air

Q13. The primary source of energy in Eco-body is  

(a) Energy emitted by fermentation  

(b) Preserved vegetable sugar  

(c) Solar energy

(d) None of the above

(c) Solar energy

Q14. Driving force of an ecosystem is:

(a) Carbohydrate 

(b) Biomass 

(c) Carbon 

(d) Solar energy

(d) Solar energy

Q15.In a food chain, man is:

(a) producer

(b) only primary consumer 

(c) only secondary consumer 

(d) primary as well as a secondary consumer

(d) primary as well as a secondary consumer

Q16. 10 percent law is related with:

(a) Transfer of energy as food from one trophic level to  other

(b) Transfer of heat from one matter to another  

(c) Transfer of birds from one zone to another  

(d) Transfer of water from one zone to another

(a) Transfer of energy as food from one trophic level to  other

Q17. In the marine environment, the main primary  producers are:

(a) Phytoplanktons

(b) Seaweeds 

(c) Marine angiosperms 

(d) Aquatic bryophytes

(a) Phytoplanktons

Q18. What is true about the ecosystem?

(a) Primary consumers are least dependent upon producer  

(b) Primary consumers are out-number producers  

(c) Producers are more than primary consumers

(d) Secondary consumers are the largest and most powerful

(c) Producers are more than primary consumers

Q19. The correct order in the food chain of the various  components of a terrestrial grass ecosystem is 

(a) Grass, Grasshopper, Frog, Snake 

(b) Grass, Grasshopper, Snake, Frog   

(c) Grasshopper, Frog, Grass, Snake  

(d) Grasshopper, Snake, Frog, Grass

(a) Grass, Grasshopper, Frog, Snake

Q20. Biomass Pyramid is reversed in which type of ecosystem?

(a) Forest 

(b) Pond

(c) Grassland 

(d) Drylands

(b) Pond

Q21. Which of the following is an abiotic factor in an ecosystem?

a) Plants

b) Animals

c) Temperature

d) Fungi

c) Temperature

Q22. Which ecological pyramid represents the energy flow in an ecosystem?

a) Pyramid of numbers

b) Pyramid of biomass

c) Pyramid of energy

d) Pyramid of competition

c) Pyramid of energy

Q23. What is the term for the process by which plants convert sunlight into chemical energy?

a) Photosynthesis

b) Respiration

c) Decomposition

d) Fermentation

a) Photosynthesis

Q24.The amount of energy during transfer from one trophic  level to another in an ecosystem

(a) Increases 

(b) Decreases

(c) Remains constant 

(d) May increase or decrease

(b) Decreases

Q25. Which one of the following trees is not eco-friendly?

(a) Babul 

(b) Eucalyptus

(c) Neem  

(d) Pipal

(b) Eucalyptus

Q26. The transitional zone between two distinct communities  is known as:

(a) Ecotype 

(b) Arcade  

(c) Ecosphere 

(d) Ecotone

(d) Ecotone

Q27. Which of the following is the most stable ecosystem?

(a) Desert 

(b) Mountain

(c) Ocean

(d) Forest

(c) Ocean

Q28. The cycling of elements in an ecosystem is called:

(a) Chemical cycles 

(b) Biogeochemical cycles

(c) Geological cycles 

(d) Geochemical cycles

(b) Biogeochemical cycles

Q29. Which one of the following is not related to ecological  balance?

(a) Water management 

(b) Afforestation  

(c) Industrial Management

(d) Wildlife protection

(c) Industrial Management

Q30. “Ecology is a permanent economy” is the slogan of which  movement?

(a) Appiko Movement 

(b) Narmada Bachao Andolan 

(c) Chipko Movement

(d) None of the above

(c) Chipko Movement

Q31. The measurement unit of the ecological footprint is:

(a) Global hectares

(b) Nanometer  

(c) Hoppus cubic foot  

(d) Cubic ton

(a) Global hectares

Q32. Which of the following is the correct sequence of ecosystems  in order to decrease productivity?

(a) Ocean, Lakes, Grasslands and Mangroves  

(b) Mangroves, Oceans, Grasslands and Lakes  

(c) Mangroves, Grasslands, Lakes and Oceans

(d) Oceans, Mangroves, Lakes and Grasslands

(c) Mangroves, Grasslands, Lakes and Oceans

https://youtu.be/OASMZnZepBI?si=8AMLdiR4YQzUFApp

What is an ecosystem?

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (biotic components) interacting with their physical and chemical environment (abiotic components). It includes all the species in an area and their interrelationships.

What is the difference between ecology and environmental science?

Ecology is a specific branch of biology that focuses on the study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Environmental science is a broader interdisciplinary field that includes ecology but also encompasses other disciplines like chemistry, geology, and social sciences to address environmental issues and sustainability.

How does climate change impact ecosystems?

Climate change can disrupt ecosystems by altering temperature and precipitation patterns, leading to shifts in species distribution and phenology (timing of biological events). It can also result in habitat loss due to sea-level rise, increased frequency of extreme weather events, and other consequences that threaten biodiversity and ecosystem stability.

What is a food chain and how does it relate to ecology?

A food chain is a simplified representation of the flow of energy and nutrients in an ecosystem, showing the transfer of food from one organism to another. It typically starts with producers (plants) and progresses through various trophic levels, including herbivores (primary consumers), carnivores (secondary consumers), and apex predators. Food chains illustrate the feeding relationships within ecosystems.

How do human activities impact ecosystems?

Human activities can have significant negative impacts on ecosystems, including habitat destruction through deforestation and urbanization, pollution from industrial and agricultural practices, overfishing, introduction of invasive species, and climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions. These activities can disrupt ecological balance and lead to biodiversity loss.

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